• DIMITRIOS ZEKKOS, PhD, PE

    Founder and CEO
    ARGO-E LLC

  • DIMITRIOS ZEKKOS, PhD, PE
    Associate Professor
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
    University of California at Berkeley

Evaluation of Properties of Municipal Solid Waste

Brief Description

Municipal Solid Waste is a complex earth material. It is variable, it is fiber-reinforced due to the numerous waste inclusions, has properties that change with time due to physical, chemical and microbial processes, and has many similarities with peats in terms of its compressibility and shear resistance. Due to the size of its waste constituents, large-size equipment is necessary to capture its field behavior. Understanding the mechanical properties of municipal solid waste is key to assessing the stability of MSW landfills, under static or dynamic conditions. Research over the last 10+ years has focused on assessing the unit weight, compressibility, shear strength and dynamic properties of MSW with a focus on quantification of variability using unique laboratory as well as field experimental setups and procedures. This understanding promotes an improved understanding of MSW behavior and leads to enhanced safety, efficiency and reliability of the operation of modern landfills, such as “dry-tomb”, as well as bioreactor landfills.

 

Publications

Books edited

  • Zekkos, D. (2011) editor, “Geotechnical characterization, Field Measurements, and Laboratory Testing of Municipal Solid Waste”, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 209, pp. 249, ISBN 978-0-7844-1146-9.

 

Chapters in books

  • Gourc, J-P., and Zekkos, D. (2019). “Chapter 5.1. – Waste Mechanical Properties.” In Solid Waste Landfilling, Cossu R. & Stegmann R. (eds.), Elsevier, 193-210.
  • Gourc, J-P., and Zekkos, D. (2019). “Chapter 5.2. – Mechanical Stability at Landfill Scale.” In Solid Waste Landfilling, Cossu R. & Stegmann R. (eds.), Elsevier, 211-228.
  • Zekkos, D., Matasovic, N., El-Sherbiny, R., Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A., Towhata, I., Maugeri, M. (2011) “Chapter 4: Dynamic Properties of Municipal Solid Waste”, in Geotechnical characterization, Field Measurements, and Laboratory Testing of Municipal Solid Waste, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 209, pp. 112-134.
  • Bray, J. D., Zekkos, D., Merry, S. M. (2011), “Chapter 3: Shear Strength of Municipal Solid Waste”, in Geotechnical characterization, Field Measurements, and Laboratory Testing of Municipal Solid Waste, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 209, pp. 44-75.

 

Journal Papers

  • Fei, X., Zekkos, D. (2017), “Comparison of Direct Shear and Simple Shear Response of MSW”, Environmental Geotechnics Journal (accepted)
  • Zekkos, D., Fei, X. (2016). “Comparison of Constant Load and Constant Volume Shearing Response in Simple Shear Testing of Municipal Solid Waste.” Waste Management, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.09.029.
  • Zekkos, D., Fei, X., Grizi, A., Athanasopoulos, G. A. (2016). “Response of Municipal Solid Waste to Mechanical Compression.” ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001608 , 04016101.
  • Sahadewa, A., Zekkos, D., Woods, R. D., Stokoe, K. H. (2015). “Field Testing Method for Evaluating the Small-strain Shear Modulus and Shear Modulus Reduction of Solid Waste.” ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, June 2015, 38 (4), 427-441.
  • Fei, X., Zekkos, D., Raskin, L. (2014). "An Experimental Setup for Simultaneous Physical, Geotechnical, and Biochemical Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste Undergoing Biodegradation in the Laboratory", ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, 37 (1),  pp. 1–12, doi:10.1520/GTJ20130084. ISSN 0149-6115.
  • Zekkos, D., Gkrizi, A. Athanasopoulos, G. A. (2013) “Investigation of fibrous reinforcement effect on shear resistance of soil-waste mixtures”, ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2013, 867-880.
  • Zekkos, D., Kabalan, M., Flanagan, M. (2013) "Lessons learned from Case Histories of Dynamic compaction of Municipal Solid Waste Sites", ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,Vol. 139, 5, May 2013, 738-752.
  • Fei, X., Zekkos, D. (2012). “Factors Influencing Long Term Settlement of Municipal Solid Waste in Meso-Scale Laboratory Bioreactor Landfill Simulators”. ASCE Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste (published online, in press for November 2013 issue)
  • Zekkos, D., Bray, J. D., Riemer, M. F. (2012), “Drained response of municipal solid waste in large-scale triaxial shear testing”, Waste Management Journal, Vol. 32, Issue 10, 1873–1885
  • Zekkos, D., Kavazanjian, E. Jr., Bray, J. D., Matasovic, N., Riemer, M. F. (2010), “Physical Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste for Geotechnical Purposes”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, September 2010, Vol. 136, No. 9, pp. 1231-1241.
  • Zekkos, D., Athanasopoulos, G. A., Bray, J .D., Theodoratos, A., and Grizi, A. (2010), “Large-scale Direct Shear Testing of Municipal Solid Waste”, Waste Management Journal, 30 pp. 1544–1555.
  • Bray, J. D., Zekkos, D., Kavazanjian, E., Jr., Athanasopoulos, G. A., Riemer, M. F. (2009), "Shear strength of Municipal Solid Waste", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, June 2009, Vol. 135, No. 6, pp. 709-722.
  • Zekkos, D., Bray, J.D., and Riemer, M.F. (2008) “Shear Modulus and Material Damping of Municipal Solid Waste Based on Large-Scale Cyclic Triaxial Testing,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2008, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2008, pp. 45-58.
  • Zekkos, D., Bray, J. D., Kavazanjian, E. Jr., Matasovic, N., Rathje, E. M., Riemer, M. F., Stokoe, K .H. (2006), "Unit weight of Municipal Solid Waste", ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 10, October 2006 pp. 1250-1261.
  • Bray, J. D., Zekkos, D., Kavazanjian, E., Jr., Athanasopoulos, G. A., Riemer, M. F. (2009), Closure of "Shear Strength of Municipal Solid Waste", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 12, December 2010, pp. 1731-1732.

 

Conference Papers

  • Matasovic, N., Zekkos, D., Sahadewa, A., Stokoe, K .H. (2017), Modulus Reduction and Damping Curves for Landfill Covers, Geotechnical Frontiers, March 12-15 2017, Orlando, FL.
  • Sahadewa, A., Zekkos, D., Fei, X., Li, J., Zhao, X. (2014).  “Recurring Shear Wave Velocity Measurements at Smith’s Creek Bioreactor Landfill”, Geocongress 2014, Atlanta, Georgia, February 23-26 2014, 2072-2081.
  • Zekkos, D., Sahadewa A., Woods, R. D., Stokoe, K., II. Matasovic, N. (2013).  “In Situ Assessment of the Nonlinear Shear Modulus of Municipal Solid Waste”.  Proc., 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, September 2-6, 2013, Paris, France, 1663-1666. 
  • Athanasopoulos, G. A., Zekkos, D., Vlachakis, V., Spiliotopoulos, G. (2013).  “The December 29th 2010 Xerolakka Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Failure”. Proc., 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, September 2-6, 2013, Paris, France, 309-312.
  • Zekkos, D. (2013). “Experimental Evidence of Anisotropy in Municipal Solid Waste”, Proc., Coupled Phenomena in Environmental Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Italy, 1 – 3 July 2013, 69-79.
  • Fei, X., and Zekkos, D. (2012). "Settlement due to Anaerobic Biodegradation from Laboratory Landfill Simulators". Geocongress 2012: State of the Art and Practice in Geotechnical Engineering, 25-29 March 2012, edited by Hryciw, Athanasopoulos-Zekkos and Yesiller, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 225, 442-4251 (in cd-rom).
  • Sahadewa, A., Zekkos, D., Lobbestael, A., and Woods, R. D. (2011). “Shear wave velocity of Municipal Solid Waste in Michigan Landfills”. 14th Pan-American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering and 64th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Geo-Innovation Addressing Global Challenges, October 2-6, 2011, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (in cd-rom).
  • Bray, J. D., Zekkos, D. (2011), “Research needs in waste mechanics”, opinion paper, in Geotechnical characterization, Field Measurements, and Laboratory Testing of Municipal Solid Waste, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication #209.
  • Athanasopoulos, G., Grizi, A., Zekkos, D., Founta P., Zisimatou, E. (2008), “Municipal Solid Waste as a Reinforced Soil: Investigation Using Synthetic Waste”, ASCE-Geoinstitute Geocongress 2008, The challenge of sustainability in the geoenvironment, March 9-12 2008, New Orleans, Geotechnics of Waste Management and Remediation, Geotechnical Special Publication (GSP) #177, pp. 168-175.
  • Zekkos, D., Bray, J. D., Stokoe, K., Kavazanjian, E., Rathje, E., Athanasopoulos, G. A., Riemer, M., Matasovic, N., Lee, J. J., Seos, B. (2008), “Recent Findings on the Static and Dynamic Properties of Municipal Solid Waste”, ASCE-Geoinstitute Geocongress 2008, The challenge of sustainability in the geoenvironment, March 9-12 2008, New Orleans, Geotechnics of Waste Management and Remediation, Geotechnical Special Publication (GSP) #177, pp. 176-183.
  • Zekkos, D., Bray, J.D., Riemer, M., Kavazanjian, E., Athanasopoulos, G.A. (2007), “Response of Municipal Solid Waste from Tri-Cities landfill in Triaxial Compression”, 11th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia 2007, 1-5 October 2007.
  • Zekkos, D., Bray J. D., Athanasopoulos, G.A., Riemer, M. F., Kavazanjian, E., Founta, X., Grizi, A. (2007), “Compositional and loading rate effects on the shear strength of Municipal Solid Waste”, 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece, June 25-28, 2007, paper no. 1525.
  • Zekkos, D. P., Bray, J. D., Riemer, M., (2006), “Laboratory Investigation of MSW Dynamic Properties”, 5th Hellenic Conference in Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, Organized by the Technical Chamber of Greece and the Hellenic Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, May 30 –June 1, 2006, Vol. 1, pp. 513-520 (in Greek).
  • Theodoratos, A., Georgiopoulos, D., Zekkos, D. P., Athanasopoulos, G. A., Bray, J. D., Riemer, M. (2006), “Laboratory Investigation of MSW Shear Strength from Large Direct Shear tests”, 5th Hellenic Conference in Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, Organized by the Technical Chamber of Greece and the Hellenic Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, May 30 – June 1, 2006, Vol. 1, pp. 537-544 (in Greek).
  • Zekkos, D. P., Bray, J. D., Riemer, M. F. (2006), “Shear modulus reduction and material damping relationships for Municipal Solid-Waste”, Proceedings of the 8th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, April 18-22, 2006, San Francisco, California, USA, Paper No. 1324 (in proceedings cd-rom).
  • Zekkos, D. P., Bray, J. D., Kavazanjian, E., Riemer, M., Matasovic, N., Stokoe K.H., Rathje, E. (2005), “A framework for developing the unit weight profile of Municipal Solid Waste”, 10th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia 2005, 3-7 October 2005 (in proceedings cd-rom).

 

Press/Magazines

  • Zekkos, D. (2013). “Updated Methods for Estimating Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste”, Geo-Strata Magazine, July-August 2013 issue, ASCE Geo-Institute, pp. 28-33.

 

Reports

  • Bray, J. D., Zekkos, D., Kavazanjian, E., Jr., Athanasopoulos, G. A., Riemer, M. F. (2009),  Closure of "Shear Strength of Municipal Solid Waste", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 12, December 2010, pp. 1731-1732.

 

Students Involved 

Doctoral

(2011-2015)
(2009-2014)
 

 

Undergraduate

College Outreach and Diversity Program, Spring-Summer 2013
UROP, Fall 2013-Winter 2014
UROP, Fall 2014-Winter 2015